عنوان مقاله [English]
Dialectical method has certain roots in the Greek philosophical thought before Plato. Such roots may be traced back from Heraclitus and Parmenides to Sophists. There, the first regular uses made of it may be found in Socrates. Though, Aristotle has mistakenly introduced Xenon of Elea as the founder of dialectical method. Plato inherited Socrates' method. But what is clear is the distinction which may be seen between dialectical methods of Socrates and Plato. The doctrine of Ideas gives much importance to this distinction. This distinction may be summarized in this way that the doctrine of Ideas is in conflict with Socratic ignorance. In other words, Socrates employed the dialectical method to show that his logical style prevents him from providing decisive statements based on knowledge; and that his duty is only "to correct", a correction for which no end may be found. Introducing the doctrine of Ideas, Plato made it completely different. And as this doctrine is introduced, it becomes clear that the end of the dialectical method is revealing the "Idea" of the subject discussed.
The present article tries to show that:
(1) Roots of the dialectical method may be found in the Greek philosophical thought before Plato, and
(2) Probably Xenon of Elea has nothing to do with the dialectical method, and
(3) Doctrine of Ideas is Plato's (and not that of Socrates), and
(4) When this doctrine is added to the dialectical method, it is of a clear impact on the process of finding an end for the logical search; or, to put it more accurately, (5) dialectical method with, and without, the doctrine of Ideas are different from each other.