عنوان مقاله [English]
It may be historically shown that the theory of distribution is among innovations of logicians of the later Middle Age such as William of Sherwood, Roger Bacon, Peter of Spain, William Ockham, and John Buridan. According to an applied approach, in the contemporary era, this theory has been used in educational works in the field of general logic to establish validity of Aristotelian syllogism. Focusing on logical thoughts of the eminent thinker of the Middle Age, John Buridan (1295-1361), the present study proves that the theory of distribution is a consequence of the theory of reference; also, referring to Buridan's logical works, it shows that the two rules of "impossibility of the undistributed middle term" and "impossibility of the method of fallacy" which are some applications of the theory of distribution are among innovations of this logician of the Middle Age. And, in their logical textbooks, contemporary logicians have shown, at best, only different readings of the definition of distribution and its rules, and that is not the case that such rules have been invented by them. Meanwhile Peter Geach believes clearly that the theory of distribution is different from the theory of reference, however his view is logically and historically criticized; and it will be shown that it is not a defensible theory. In the conclusion, according to the philosophical-logical framework of Buridan, new definitions of "distributed" and "undistributed" terms will be provided which are based on his logical concepts and terms.