عنوان مقاله [English]
Faqihs and Osulians have dealt with some kinds of universality which are 1. “distributive”, “separative” or “inclusive universality”, 2. “aggregative”, “collective” or “cumulative universality”, and 3. “alternative universality”. They found many uses and examples for the kinds. In this paper, I want to formalize in Modern Logic some of the uses and the examples and to show complexities and intricacies thereof. For this, I employ the combination of quantifiers with negations, conditionals and quantifiers. Then I show that this method, despite its elegance and potentiality, when the rules of Modern Logic are applied to it, gives astonishing, sometimes inadmissible, results and collapse aggregative universality and alternative universality into distributive universality. So, this paper aims to show that the kinds of universality have intricacies and complexities which seeks more investigation on their unknown and dark angles.